Bordeaux Mixture Fungicide

Copper sulphate, blue stone, blue vitriol are all common names for pentahydrated cupric sulphate, Cu S04 5 H20, which is the best known and the most widely used of the copper salts.

SKU: RXSOL-94-1277-025 Category:

Description

Copper sulfate exporter and stockist in India and the Middle East. We are keeping ready stock of materials to complete our regular customer demand locally and globally.Application: Dose: Uses of Copper Compounds: Table A – Uses of Copper Sulphate Classification Applications Agriculture   Major uses Preparation of Bordeaux and Burgundy mixtures for use as fungicides   Manufacture of other copper fungicides such as copper-lime dust, tribasic   copper sulphate, copper carbonate and cuprous oxide   Manufacture of insecticides such as copper arsenite and Paris green   Control of fungus diseases (see below)   Correction of copper deficiency in soils   Correction of copper deficiency in animals   Growth stimulant for fattening pigs and broiler chickens   Molluscicide for the destruction of slugs and snails, particularly the snail host of the liver fluke Other uses Seed dressing   Soil steriliser, e.g. Cheshunt compound (a mixture of copper sulphate and ammonium carbonate) to prevent “damping-off” disease of tomato, etc.   Control and prevention of foot rot in sheep and cattle   Bacteriastat for addition to sheep dips   Disinfectant in prevention of the spread of swine erysepelas and white scours in calves   Control of scum in farm ponds   Plant nutrient in rice fields   Preservative for wooden posts, wooden buildings, etc.   Preservative for wooden fruit boxes, planting baskets and other containers   Ingredient of vermin repellents, e.g. for application to bark of trees against rabbits   Stimulant of latex yield on rubber plantations   Protection against algal growths on flower pots Public Health and Medicine     Destruction of algal blooms in reservoirs and swimming pools   Prevention of the spread of athletes foot in warm climates, by incorporation in the flooring mixture of swimming baths   Control of bilharzia in tropical countries, as a molluscicide   Prevention of malaria, in the preparation of Paris green for use against mosquito larvae   Antiseptic and germicide against fungus infections   Catalyst or raw material for the preparation of copper catalysts used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products Industry   Adhesives Preservative in casein and other glues   Additive to bookbinding pastes and glues, for insecticidal purposes   Additive to animal and silicate glues to give water resistance Building Timber preservative and in the preparation of other wood preservatives, e.g. oil based copper naphthenates and water based copper/chrome/arsenic for the   prevention of woodworms and wood rots   Ingredient of plaster to prevent fungus infection, e.g. to prevent the spread of dry rot   Ingredient of concrete, both as a colouring matter and as an antiseptic, e.g. for use in and around swimming pools   Modification of the setting of concrete   Protection against lichens, moulds and similar growths on asbestos cement roofing and other building materials   Control of the growth of tree roots in sewers Chemical Preparation of catalysts for use in many industries   Purification of gases, e.g. removal of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen sulphide   Precipitation promoter in purifying zinc sulphate solutions   Precipitation of alkaloids as double salts from crude extracts   Source of other copper compounds such as copper carbonate silicate/arsenite/   aceto-arsenite/resinate/stearate/tartrate/oleate naphthenate/chromate/chlorate   /alginate/fluoride/hydroxide, cuprous oxide/chloride/cyanide and   cuprammonium compounds  Decorative trades  Colouring glass    Colouring cement and plaster    Colouring ceramic wares    Alteration of metal colours, e.g. darkening of zinc, colouring aluminium  Dyestuffs  Reagent in the preparation of dyestuffs intermediates    Catalyst or raw material for the preparation of copper catalysts, e.g. preparation of phenols from diazo compounds, preparation of phthalocyanine dyes  Leather and  Mordant in dyeing    Reagent in tanning processes  Metal and  Electrolyte in copper refining  electrical  Electrolyte in copper plating and electro forming    Electrolytic manufacture of cuprous compounds, e.g. cuprous oxide    Constituent of the electrodes and electrolytes in batteries    Electrolyte in the manufacture of copper powder    Electrolyte in aluminium plating and anodising    Copper coating steel wire, prior to wire drawing    Pickling copper wire, etc., prior to enamelling    Providing a suitable surface for marking out iron and steel  Mining  Flotation reagent in the concentration of ores, e.g. zinc blende  Paint  Raw material for the manufacture of copper naphthenate and other copper compounds for use in anti-fouling paints    Preparation of certain varnish or paint dryers, e.g. copper oleate, copper stearate    Preparation of certain pigments, e.g. copper chromate, copper ferrocyanide, copper phthalocyanine  Printing  Etching agent for process engraving    Electrolyte in the preparation of electrotype    Ingredient of printing inks  Synthetic rubber  Preparation of catalysts used in cracking certain gaseous and liquid petroleum  and petroleum  Fractions    Preparation of cuprous chloride, used in the purification of butadiene and in the separation of acetylene derivatives    Preparation of catalysts used in chlorinating rubber latex    Purification of petroleum oils  Textiles  Preparation of copper compounds for rot-proofing canvas and other fabrics    Rot-proofing sandbags    Mordant, especially in calico printing    Cuprammonium process for the production of rayon    Production of aniline black and diazo colours for dyeing    “After coppering” to increase the fastness of dyes    Catalyst in the manufacture of cellulose ethers and in cellulose acetylation  Miscellaneous  Improving the burning qualities of coke    Laboratory analytical work    Ingredient of laundry marking ink    Dyeing of hair and horn    Ingredient of hair dyes of the phenylene diamine or pyrogallol type    Preparation of chlorophyll as a colouring material for food stuffs    Imparting a green colour in fireworks    Activator in the preparation of active carbons    Preservative for wood pulp    Preservation of fishing nets and hides on trawls    Obtaining a blue-black finish on steel    Treatment of carbon brushes    Ingredient of the solution used for preserving plant specimens in their natural colours   Impregnation in fruit wrapping papers to prevent storage rots Uses of Copper Compounds: Table B – Plant Diseases Amenable to Control by Copper Fungicides   Disease   Plant Common name Pathogen Almond Shot hole Clasterosporium carpophilum   Rust Puccinia pruni-spinosae   Blossom wilt Sclerotinia laxa and Sclerotinia fructigena   Leaf curl Taphrina deformans Aloe Anthracnose Colletotrichum agaves Antirrhinum Rust Puccinia antirrhini Apple Pink disease Corticium salmonicolor   Fireblight Erwinia amylovora   Bitter rot Glomerella cingulata   Canker Nectria galligena   Blotch Phyllosticta solitaria   Black rot Physalospora obtusa   Blossom wilt Sclerotinia laxa   Scab Venturia inaequalis Apricot Shot hole Clasterosporium carpophilum   Rust Puccinia pruni-spinosae   Blossom wilt Sclerotinia laxa and Sclerotinia fructigena Areca Nut Thread blight Corticium koleroga Arrowroot Banded leaf blight Corticium solani Artichoke (Globe)   Ramularia cynarae Asparagus Rust Puccinia asparagi Avocado Fruit spot Cercospora purpurea   Anthracnose (Black spot) Glomerella cingulata   Bacterial rot Pseudomonas syringae   Scab Sphaceloma perseae  Azalea  Flower spot  Ovulinia azaleae  Banana  Black rot (Die back)  Botryodiplodia theobromae    Helminthosporiosis  Helminthosporium sp.    Sigatoka disease (Leaf spot)  Mycosphaerella musicola  Barley  Snow damage  Typhula itoana    Covered smut  Ustilago hordei  Bean (Broad)  Leaf spot  Asochyta pisi    Chocolate spot  Botrytis cinerea    Rust  Uromyces fabae  Bean (French and Runner)  Anthracnose  Colletotrichum lindemuthianum    Powdery mildew  Erysiphe polygoni    Halo blight  Pseudomonas medicaginis var phaseolicola    Rust Uromyces appendiculatus    Common blight  Xanthomonas phaseoli  Begonia  Mildew  Oidium begoniae  Betel  Leaf spot  Bacterium betle    Leaf spot  Glomeralla cingulata    Foot rot  Phytophthora colocasiae    Leaf rot  Phytophthora parasitica  Blackberry  Cane spot  Elsinoe veneta  Blueberry  Powdery mildew  Microsphaera alni var. vaccinii    Leaf rust  Pucciniastrum myrtilli    Fruit rot  Sclerotinia vaccinii-corymbosi  Brassicas  Damping off  Oipidium brassicae    Downy mildew  Peronospora parasitica    Black leg (Canker)  Phoma lingam    Black rot  Xanthomonas campestris  Cacao  Brown pod rot (Die back)  Botryodiplodia theobromae    Witches’ broom  Marasmius perniciosus    Black pod rot  Phytophthora palmivora  Calendula  Leaf spot  Cercospora calendulae  Carnation  Ring spot  Didymellina dianthi    Leaf spot  Septoria dianthi    Rust  Uromyces dianthi   Carrot Blight  Alternaria dauci   Bacterial soft rot  Bacterium carotovorum    Leaf spot  Cercospora carotae  Cassava  Leaf spot  Cercospora henningsii  Castor oil  Leaf spot  Phyllosticta bosensis  Cattleya  Black rot  Phythium ultimum  Celery  Blight  Cercospora apii    Leaf spot  Septoria apii and Septoria apii graveolentis  Cherry  Shot hole  Clasterosporium carpophilum    Leaf spot  Coccomyces hiemalis    Bitter rot  Glomerella cingulata    Leaf scorch  Gnomonia erythrostoma    Bacterial canker  Pseudomonas mors-prunorum    Brown rot (Blossom wilt)  Sclerotinia laxa and Sclerotinia fructigena    Scab  Venturia cerasi  Chestnut  Blight  Endothia parasitica    Ink disease  Phytophthora cambivora  Chilli  Blight (Leaf spot)  Cercospora capsici    Blight (Collar rot)  Phytophthora capsici    Bacterial spot  Xanthomonas vesicatoria  Chrysanthemum  Mildew  Oidium chrysanthemi    Rust  Puccinia chrysanthemi    Leaf spot Septoria chrysanthemella   Cinchona  Damping off  Pythium vexans  Cineraria    Alternaria senecionis  Citronella  Collar rot    Citrus  Sooty mould  Aithaloderma citri    Thread blight  Corticium koleroga    Melanose  Diaporthe citri    Mal secco  Deuterophoma tracheiphila    Scab  Elsinoe fawcetti    Anthracnose (Wither tip)  Gloeosporium limetticola    Sooty blotch  Leptothyrium pomi    Black spot  Phoma citricarpa    Brown rot  Phytophthora spp.    Black pit  Pseudomonas syringae    Septoria spot  Septoria depressa    Canker  Xanthomonas citri  Coffee  Brown eyespot  Cercospora coffeicola    Thread blight (Black rot)  Corticium koleroga    Anthracnose (Die back)  Glomerella cingulata    Rust  Hemileia vastatrix    Berry disease  Colletotrichum coffeanum  Conifers  Blight  Cercospora thujina    Coryneum blight  Coryneum berckmanii    Canker  Coryneum cardinale    Fusiform rust  Cronartium fusiforme    Blister rust  Cronartium ribicola    Leaf cast (of Kauri Pine)  Hendersonula agathi    Needle cast (of Scots Pine)  Lophodermium pinastri    Phomopsis blight  Phomopsis juniperovora    Needle cast (of Douglas Fir)  Rhabdocline pseudotsugae    Root rot  Rhizoctonia crocorum  Cotton  Alternarii disease  Alternaria gossypii and Alternaria    macrospora      Sore shin  Corticium solani  Cowpea  Scab  Cladosporium vignae  Cucurbits  Leaf blight  Alternaria cucumerina    Wet rot  Choanephora cucurbitarum    Anthracnose  Colletotrichum lagenarium    Wilt  Erwinia tracheiphila    Powdery mildew  Erysiphe cichoracearum    Black rot  Mycosphaerella citrullina    Stem end rot  Physalospora rhodina    Downy mildew  Pseudoperonospora cubensis  Currant (Ribes)  Leaf spot  Mycosphaerella grossulariae and Mycosphaerella ribis    Leaf spot  Pseudopeziza ribis  Cytisus  Die back  Ceratophorum setosum  Daffodil  White mould  Ramularia vallisumbrosae    Fire  Sclerotinia polyblastis  Dahlia  Leaf spot  Phyllosticta dahliicola and Entyloma dahliae  Dalo  Leaf spot  Phytophthora colocasiae  Delphinium  Mildew  Erysiphe polygoni  Derris  Leaf spot  Colletotrichum derridis  Dogwood (Cornus)  Spot anthracnose  Elsinoe corni  Egg Plant  Leaf spot  Ascochyta melongenae    Damping off  Corticium solani  Fig  Leaf fall and Fruit rot  Cercospora bolleana    Rust  Cerotelium fici    Thread blight  Corticium koleroga    Canker  Phomopsis cinerescens    Blight  Phizoctonia microsclerotia  Filbert  Bud blight  Xanthomonas corylina  Fruit trees  Crown gall  Bacterium tumefaciens  Gambier  White root rot  Fomes lignosus  Gardenia  Canker  Phomopsis gardenia  Gerbera  Leaf spot  Cercospora sp.  Ginseng  Blight  Alternaria panax  Gladiolus  Corm rot  Botrytis gladiolorum  Gooseberry  Die back  Botrytis cinerea    Leaf spot  Mycosphaerella grossulariae    Cluster cup rust  Puccinia pringshemiana    American mildew  Sphaerotheca mors-uvae  Grasses  Snow mould  Calonectria graminicola    Red thread  Corticium fusiforme    Brown patch of lawns  Rhizoctonia and Holminthosporium spp.    Stripe smut  Ustilago striiformis  Ground nut  Leaf spot  Cercospora arachidicola and Cercospora personate    Stem rot (Southern blight)  Sclerotium rolfsii  Guava  Leaf spot  Cephaleuros mycoidea    Thread blight  Corticium koleroga    Rust  Puccinia psidii  Hellebore    Coniothyrium hellebori  Hollyhock  Rust  Puccinia malvacearum  Hop  Downy mildew  Pseudoperonospora humuli    Powdery mildew  Sphaerotheca humuli  Hydrangea  Mildew  Oidium hortensiae  Leek  Mildew  Peronospora destructor    White tip  Phytophthora porri  Lettuce  Downy mildew  Bremia lactucae    Ring spot  Marssonina panattoniana Lily  Blight  Botrytis elliptica  Maize  Downy mildew  Sclerospora philippinensis  Mango  Red rust  Cephaleuros virescens    Anthracnose  Colletotrichum gloeosporioides    Scab  Elsinoe mangiferae    Bacterial black spot  Erwinia mangiferae    Anthracnose  Gloeosporium mangiferae    Powdery mildew  Oidium mangiferae  Medlar  Scab  Venturia eriobotryae  Millet (Italian)  Smut  Ustilago crameri  Mushroom  White mould  Mycogone perniciosa    Bacterial blotch(Brown blotch)  Pseudomonas tolaasi  Nectarine  Shot hole  Clasterosporium carpophilum    Rust  Puccinia pruni-spinosae    Blossom wilt  Sclerotinia laxa and Sclerotinia fructigena    Leaf curl  Taphrina deformans  Oats  Loose smut  Ustilago avanae  Olive  Leaf spot  Cycloconium oleaginum  Onion  Downy mildew  Peronospora destructor  Orchids  Fusarium  Macrophoma and Diplodia spp.  Paeony  Blight  Botrytis peaoniae    Bud death  Sphaeropsis paeonia  Palm ( Palmyra)  Leaf spot  Pestalotia palmarum  Passion fruit  Brown spot  Alternaria passiflorae    Grease spot  Pseudomonas passiflorae  Pawpaw  Leaf spot  Ascochyta caricae    Anthracnose (Fruit rot)  Colletotrichum gloeosporioides    Powdery mildew  Oidium caricae    Hard rot  Phytophthora parasitica  Peach  Shot hole  Clasterosporium carpophilum    Rust  Puccinia pruni-spinosae    Blossom wilt  Sclerotinia laxa and Sclerotinia fructigena    Leaf curl  Taphrina deformans  Pear  Scab ( America)  Cladosporium effusum    Thread blight  Corticium koleroga    Firebiiglit  Erwinia amylovora    Bitter rot  Glomerella cingulata    Leaf spot (Leaf speck)  Mycosphaerella sentina    Scab  Venturia pirina  Pecan  Scab  Cladosporium effusum    Thread blight  Corticium koleroga    Vein spot  Gnomonia nerviseda    Liver spot  Gnomonia caryae var. pecanae  Pepper(Red)  See Chilli)    Persimmon  Canker  Phomopsis diospyri  Pineapple  Heart or stern rot  Phytophthora parasitica  Piper betle  (See Betel)    Plantain  Black tip  Helminthosporium torulosum  Plum  Shot hole  Clasterosporium carpophilum    Black rot  Dibotryon morbosum    Bacterial canker  Pseudomonas mors-prunorum    Wilt  Pseudomonas prunicola    Rust  Puccinia pruni-spinosae    Brown rot  Sclerotinia fructigena    Blossom wilt  Sclerotinia laxa    Watery rot (Pocket plums)  Taphrina pruni    Bacterial spot  Xanthomonas pruni  Poplar    Septogloeum populiperdun  Poppy  Downy mildew  Peronospora arborescens  Potato  Early blight  Alternaria solani    Grey mould  Botrytis cinerea    Blight (Late blight)  Phytophthora infestans    Dry rot  Sclerotium rolfsii  Quince  Brown rot  Sclerotinia fructigena    Shot hole  Clasterosporium carpophilum  Raspberry  Spur blight  Didymella applanata    Cane spot (Anthracnose)  Elsinoe veneta    Cane wilt  Leptosphaeria coniothyrium  Rhododendron  Leaf scorch (Bud blast)  Pycnostysanus azaleae  Rhubarb  Downy mildew  Peronospora jaapiana  Rice  Brown spot  Ophiobolus miyabeanus    (Helmintliosporiosis)      Blast  Piricularia oryzae  Rose  Black spot  Diplocarpon rosae    Downy mildew  Peronospora sparsa    Rust  Phragmidium mucronatum    Leaf spot (Anthracnose)  Sphaceloma rosarum    Mildew Sphaerotheca pannosa  Rubber  American leaf disease  Dothidella ulei    White root rot  Fomes lignosus    Leaf disease  Helminthosporium heveae    Stem disease  Pestalotia palmarum    Abnormal leaf fall  Phytophthora palmivora  Rye grass  Blind seed  Phialea temulenta  Safflower  Rust  Puccinia carthami  Seedlings  Damping off  Pythium debaryanum, Pythium and Rhizoctonia spp, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum,etc  Sorghum  Covered smut  Sphacelotheca sorghi  Spinach  Leaf spot  Heterosporium variabile    Downy mildew  Peronospora effusa  Spindle tree  Mildew  Oidium euonymi-japonicae  Stock  Leaf spot  Alternaria raphani  Strawberry  Leaf spot  Mycosphaerella fragariae  Sugar beet  Leaf spot  Cercospora beticola    Downy mildew  Peronospora schactii  Sunflower  Rust  Puccinia helianthi    Wilt  Sclerotinia sclerotiorum  Sweet potato  Wilt  Fusarium spp.  Taro  Leaf spot  Phytophthora colocasiae  Tea  Black rot (Die back)  Botryodiplodia theobromae    Red rust  Cephaleuros niycoidea    Blister blight  Exobasidium vexans    Grey blight  Pestalotia theae  Tobacco  Brown spot (Red rust)  Alternaria longipes    Leaf spot  Ascochyta nicotianae    Frog eye  Cercospora nicotianae    Blue mould (Downy mildew)  Peronospora tabacina    Wildfire  Pseudomonas tabacum  Tomato  Early blight  Alternaria solani    Leaf mould  Cladosporium fulvum    Anthracnose  Colletotrichum phomoides    Fruit rot  Didymella lycopersici    Mildew  Leveilluia taurica    Fruit rot  Phytophthora capsici    Foot rot  Phytophthora cryptogea    Blight (Late blight)  Phytophthora infestans    Leaf spot  Septoria lycopersici    Grey leaf spot  Stemphylium solani    Bacterial spot  Xanthomonas vesicatoria  Tuberose  Blight  Botrytis elliptica  Tung  Thread blight  Corticium koleroga  Veronica    Septoria exotici  Vine (Grape)  “Coitre”  Coniothyrium diplodiella    Anthracnose  Elsinoe ampelina    Black rot  Guignardia bidwellii    Leaf spot  Isariopsis fuckelli    Bitter rot  Melanconium fuligineum    Angular leaf spot  Mycosphaerella angulata    Downy mildew  Plasmopara viticola    Totbrenner  Pseudopeziza tracheiphila    Powdery mildew  Uncinula necator  Vine (Sultana)  Sooty dew  Exosporium sultanae  Viola  Leaf spot  Centrospora acerina  Violet  Scab  Sphaceloma violae  Walnut  Ring spot  Ascochyta juglandis    Anthracnose (Blotch)  Gnomonia leptostyla    Downy leaf spot  Microstroma juglandis    Blight  Xanthomonas juglandis  Wheat  Root rot  Gibberella zeae    Rust  Puccinia spp    Snow damage  Pythium sp.    Bunt Tilletia caries and Tilletia faetida   Willow  Black canker  Physalospora miyabeana    Scab  Venturia chlorospora  Zinnia  Wilt  Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Note: Uses of Copper Compounds: Other Copper Compounds                   Copper Acetates Basic copper acetate (verdigris) was at one time made in France by interleaving copper metal sheets with fermented grape skins and dregs left after wine manufacture. After some time when the copper sheets had become coated with verdigris they were removed, exposed to the air for a few days and then replaced. This process was repeated until the whole sheet had become corroded. The resulting product was known as blue verdigris and was used as a fungicide at 1 kg basic copper acetate in 500 litres water. Present manufacture is based on the action of acetic acid on copper metal, copper oxide or copper carbonate. They can also be prepared by treating a copper sulphate solution with lead acetate. Copper acetates are used as an intermediate in the manufacture of Paris green (cupric aceto-arsenite); as a catalyst in a number of organic reactions including rubber aging; as a chemical in textile dyeing; and as a pigment for ceramics. Copper acetates have also been used for impregnating kraft paper to produce an anti-tarnish wrapping paper for high grade silver ware. Cuprous Oxide Can be produced either electrolytically from copper or by the action of alkaline reducing agents on copper sulphate solutions. Formulated proprietary brands of cuprous oxide are extensively employed as fungicides and seed dressings. Another important application is in anti-fouling paints. Other uses include the colouring of porcelain and glass. Cupric Oxide (black copper oxide) Can be produced either by adding caustic soda to hot copper sulphate solutions or by treating copper scale with nitric acid and heating to redness. Cupric oxide is used in the ceramic industry for imparting blue, green or red tints in glasses, glazes and enamels. It is occasionally employed for incorporation in mineral supplements for insuring against an insufficiency of copper in the diet of animals. Among its other uses is the preparation of cuprammonium hydroxide solutions for the rayon industry. Cupric Chloride Obtained either by dissolving cupric oxide in hydrochloric acid or by the action of chlorine on copper. Its principal use is in the petroleum industry for sweetening (catalytic oxidation of the mercaptans) and as an ingredient of catalysts for other chemical processes. It is also used as a mordant in calico printing and dyeing. Copper Oxychloride Is a basic copper chloride and is usually manufactured either by the action of hydrochloric acid on copper metal or by the air oxidation of cuprous chloride suspensions. It has a number of applications, by far the most important being as an agricultural fungicide for which purpose it is extensively employed in formulated form as dusts, wettable powders and pastes. Cuprous Chloride Prepared either by heating a solution of cupric chloride with copper turnings or by the action of a reducing agent, such as sulphur dioxide, on a mixture of common salt and copper sulphate solution. The petroleum industry uses cuprous chloride in their “oil sweetening” process. Ammoniacal solutions of cuprous chloride are employed for the absorption of any carbon monoxide which may be present in a gas as an impurity. Cupric Nitrate Produced either by dissolving copper carbonate in nitric acid or direct from copper and nitric acid. It has a number of small uses, such as in ceramics, in dyeing as a mordant, in fireworks and in photography. Copper Cyanide Manufactured from sodium cyanide and copper sulphate. It is mainly used for copper electroplating. Copper Soaps Usually made by the interactlon of the corresponding soap with copper sulphate solution. Small quantities of these, such as copper stearate, copper oleate and copper abietate (from resins), are employed mainly for rot-proofing textiles, ropes, etc. They are also used in paints as they are soluble in oils, white spirits, etc. Copper Naphthenate Usually manufactured either from copper sulphate and naphthenic acid in combination with an alkali or by heating naphthenic acid and copper oxide. It is widely used as an oil-based wood preservative and as a rot-proofing agent. Anhydrous and Monohydrated Copper Sulphate Obtained by heating copper sulphate pentahydrate when four molecules water of crystallization are removed the product becomes copper sulphate monohydrate which is green in colour. At a higher temperature all the water of crystallization is removed and anhydrous copper sulphate is the white powder which results. They can also be obtained by crystallization from copper sulphate pentahydrate in boiling sulphuric acid. The main applications are in the production of proprietary wood preservatives and agricultural fungicides as well as for the production of a number of copper compounds. Sometimes they are utilised to detect the presence of moisture.        

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